The Flexneys, an Oxfordshire Diaspora

Holy Trinity. WoodGreen Witney crop

Holy Trinity Church, Woodgreen, Witney

Flexney is an Oxfordshire surname with a long history, the earliest usages appearing in the thirteenth century. It also has a distinguished record, the family providing the city of Oxford with two mayors and several other officials, but by the start of the nineteenth century it had all but died out in the county. In the 1851 Census there were just five households, all of them living in Witney and all descended (with one possible exception) from Richard Flexney (1756-1803) a blanket weaver. Twenty years later not a single bearer of the surname remained in Witney and only one family, who had moved into Oxford in 1851, lived in the county. No doubt much of this was occasioned by employment factors and the availability of easy rail transport to areas where jobs were more plentiful.

St Mary Witney [10]

St Mary’s Witney

The one family whose origins are obscure were Edward and Eliza Flexney. I can find no record of Edward’a baptism (around 1813) and nothing before his marriage to Eliza Godfrey at St Mary’s, Witney on 9th July 1831 which gives any clue. He may be connected to the other Flexney families in the town, but we can’t be sure. Edward was a Woolen Spinner, no doubt working in one of the many textile factories that had developed in Witney with the gradual industrialization of the blanket making trade. The family moved to Yorkshire at some time in the 1850s, possibly to find work in the rapidly expanding textile industry there, for Edward still gives his occupation as Woolen Spinner in the 1861 Census. Edward had died by the time of the Census ten years later, but his sons, Charles (a Cabinet Maker) and Frederick (a Stationary Engine Mechanic) both married and had families of their own. In all probablitity any Flexney alive in Britain today is descended from either this Yorkshire branch or the London branch (see below).

Returning to Witney in 1851, there were two branches of the Flexneys which were headed by a son of Richard (1756-1803), a blanketweaver. The eldest son, another Richard was a maltster and lived with his wife, Mary (nee Fords) in Swingburn Row, off Corn Street. Their only child, John was an agricultural labourer and lived at 47 High Street with his wife, Eliza (nee Austin) and their two daughters, Marlin and Mary Ann. John had joined the Royal Marines in Portsmouth in 1836, and was discharged in 1845, listed as “Branded”, presumably with “D” for deserter. In 1861, with his parents and wife having all died, John was left with four children at home – a son Edward had been born in 1852/3 and a daughter Alice in 1857. The family have been difficult to trace after this, but Edward may have been in the army before he reappears as a chimney sweep in the 1891 Census. Ten years further on he has a wife, Elizabeth and three children who were all born in Pusey, Wiltshire. I have not been able to trace them in 1911.

The younger brother of Richard Flexney the maltster, was another Edward (1795-1853) who was also a Woolen Spinner. He was my ancestor and the bulk of my research has naturally been into his family. It is remarkable that for three generations his forbears were involved in the blanket industry and yet none of his ten children, who all survived into adulthood, worked in it. In fact, with one exception, they had all left Witney by 1861 and eight of them moved outside Oxfordshire completely. Between them they exhibit all the characteristics and contradictions of the Regency, Victorian and Edwardian ages which their adult lives so neatly spanned, the eldest, Thomas being born in 1816 and Selina, the longest lived, dying in 1918. Edward had married Mary Godfrey, the illegitimate daughter of Marlin Godfrey, in 1815. He is living in Corn Street in 1841 and had moved to Wood Green by the time of the 1851 Census. He died there in 1853 and was buried in the churchyard of All Saints, Wood Green, which had just been completed.

I will treat each of his children in order and examine the themes that run through so many of their lives; musical ability and a slightly cavalier approach to marriage.

 

Thomas Flexney 1816-1872

The eldest son, Thomas was baptised at St Marys, Witney on January 28th 1816 and was one of the more conventional members of the family. He married Elizabeth Parmee from Curbridge, also at St Marys, on 18th April 1835, and by the time of the 1841 Census were three children in the household: Mary Ann (aged 5), Elizabeth (3) and Thomas (4 months). They were living on Corn Street, near Thomas’ parents and his occupation is “shoemaker”. He is variously described as “cordwainer” or “bootmaker” in later Censuses, but these are simple variations on the same occupation. By 1851 three more daughters are mentioned – Marlin, Emily and Mercy. The rather unusual name, Marlin, was a family one; it was the name of Thomas’ grandmother, Marlin Godfrey.

Oxford Prison

Oxford prison

On 7th August 1858 Thomas was appointed “Turnkey Trade Instructor” at the prison in Oxford. He had already been working there for the previous six weeks according to an announcement in Jackson’s Oxford Journal, and was to be paid one guinea and provided with a uniform. The necessary tools were also provided for him so that he could “engage in the duty of teaching shoemaking to eighteen convicted prisoners whose original period of imprisonment exceeded twelve months”. It was noted that Thomas, although having a different title from other warders, had to undertake the common duties of a prison warder “as occasion may require”. At the time of the appointment Thomas was still residing in Witney, but by 1861 Thomas and Elizabeth had moved to Oxford, and were living at Park End Place, St Thomas. Two final children are in evidence – Norah (born in 1851) and James Edward (1853). The family stayed in the western area of Oxford, with Thomas dying in 1872 and Elizabeth in 1885. Both their sons followed in their father’s footsteps, becoming shoemakers, and, although both married, neither seems to have had any children. On the death of James Edward in 1904, the surname was finally extinguished in Oxfordshire.

Mercy Flexney 1849 - 1891

Mercy Flexney 1849-1891

 

Marlin Flexney 1819-1896

West End Witney

Marlin was the eldest daughter of Edward and Mary and was named for her grandmother, Marlin Godfrey. Like Thomas she lived a fairly conventional life – perhaps the elder children were made more responsible by the necessity of their having to help with the upbringing of their siblings. By the time of the 1841 Census she too was married and living in Corn Street with her husband, Frederick Bridgman and daughter, Susan. They had been married at St Marys in 1838 and Frederick came from Charlbury, just north of Witney. His occupation is difficult to read, but it may be “bailer”, possibly working in the textile trade. In later Censuses he is “out door servant”, “general servant” and finally, “gardener”. Marlin always appears as a “dressmaker”. By 1851 they had moved to Bridge Street, and by 1861 to West End. They remained there until Marlin’s death in 1896. They had five further children after Susan – William (1842) Marlin (1845) Edward (1847) Frederick (1852) and John (1860). Frederick was a Railway Porter in 1871, living with his uncle John in Bristol. Marlin was the last Flexney to live in Witney.

 

Mary Ann Flexney 1823-1890

Mary Ann was born in 1823 and was still living with her parents in 1841 when the Census took place. Five years later she married John Woodcock, a widower who was then Parish Clerk and the Witney National School Master; he was sixteen years older than Mary Ann and his first wife, Fanny had died earlier in 1846, leaving John to bring up five children. It was a common occurrence for widowers (and widows) to remarry quite quickly when young children were involved and four of John’s children were under the age of ten. Within six months of their marriage they had a daughter, Mary Ann and another five children would follow in future years.

It has been impossible to find the family on the 1851 Census and we can only trace their movements by the birthplaces of the children. The second, Agnes Jane was born in Witney in 1850 and the others were all born in Bristol: Frederick Edward towards the end of 1852, Alfred (1855), Albert (1858) and finally Susannah in 1860. A presentation of a desk was made to John by the staff and pupils of St Mary Redcliffe National School at Christmas 1862, so this may suggest he had been there for ten years.

Redcliffe Parade

St Mary Redcliffe church and Redcliffe Parade – No 1 was the nearest to the church

So it seems they were the first of the family to move to Bristol, and by 1861 at least four of Mary Ann’s siblings and her mother had joined them, no doubt following the death of Edward Flexney in June 1853. Living in the same house as John and Mary Ann (1, Redcliffe Parade East) were her brothers, John and Daniel as well as her sister, Agnes. A few doors along, her mother Mary Flexney was a nurse in the household of Mary Passmore, and in Nelson Place, a row of smaller houses that backed on to Redcliffe Parade lived Mary Ann’s sister Selina.

Map Redcliffe Parade

Map of Redcliffe showing the church, Redcliffe Parade, Nelson Place and Guinea Street

As a National School teacher, John Woodcock was expected to move around the country. 1871 finds the family in Otterton, near Budleigh Salterton, in Devon, living in the School House. By the time John had retired, sometime before the 1881 Census, they had moved to Yorkshire, for in that year John appears as an Annuitant, living with Mary Ann and their daughter Susannah at 3 Edith Terrace, Symon Street, Sculcoates, near Hull. John died there in 1885 aged 78 and Mary Ann in 1890.

 

Edward Flexney 1825-1891

Edward is the first of the family to cause us some problems, especially in his early career. He is with his parents in Corn Street, Witney in 1841, but can’t be traced again until 1871 when he is living at 50 St Michael’s Hill, Bristol, along with four other families.

50 St Michaels Hill, Bristol (Yellow house with blue door) [2]

50 St Michaels’s Hill, the yellow house with a blue door

With him were his wife, Harriet, son Edward aged 22 and “daughter” Nelly, aged 5. Both men are described as musicians. In fact Nelly was Mary Eleanor, a niece, who was the daughter of his brother, Daniel (see below). She was at some stage taken in by Edward and Harriet and continued living with them until her marriage. Harriet Peake was born in Combe, near Woodstock in Oxfordshire and Edward and Harriet’s eldest child was Edward Harrington Flexney who was born in Salford and baptized at Manchester Cathedral on April 8th 1849. A daughter, Ellen was born in Witney in 1851 but died the following year when the family were living in James Street, Waterloo, London. However, it wasn’t until February 2nd 1853 that Edward and Harriet married, at St Nicholas, Liverpool. All the evidence points to them living in the north-west in the 1850/60s and it may be that their entries in the 1851 and 1861 Census’ were lost when much of the Manchester area data was destroyed. They appear to have had no more children.

Although he seems to have been based in the north-west of England, Edward must have travelled a good deal in his musical career. We have two announcements for performances where he participated – both in Bristol (the lack of any other venues is probably accounted for by the range of nineteenth century newspapers online). In 1853 at Forresters Music Hall in Broadmead, Fred Hargest performed “The Belle of the Hunt” and “Sarah’s Dress Rehearsal” with a cast of vocalists and dancers, together with “Full Band” of which, “Mr E Flexney, cornet” is given as one of three individual artists. On a more elevated note, the Bristol Philharmonic Society announced a performance of The Messiah on 27th December 1869 at the Colston Hall. The “Band” consisted of thirty “gentlemen amateurs” of the society along with a number of “eminent professors” from various locations – one is Mr Flexney from London: this could, of course be either father or son.

We have seen Edward and his family in 1871; by 1881 they had returned to the north-west. Edward senior was then living at 64 Bala Street, Walton, Liverpool with Harriet, Nelly (now Mary E Flexney, niece) and granddaughter, Emily, aged 2, who was the youngest daughter of Edward junior. Edward gives his occupation as “Trumpeter in RAM”. I have not been able to interpret this – it is definitely not the Royal Academy of Music and may refer to a local orchestra. In a newspaper report of his son’s death in 1902 it records that Edward senior was a member of the band of the Royal Horse Guards, and he certainly served in that regiment in what was an episodic miliatry career. He first enlisted in the Grenadier Guards in April 1858, but bought himself out at a cost of £18 in May 1861. Nearly a year later he enlisted in the RHG for a term of twelve years but is recorded as deserting in November 1863. Possibly at some time he was at the Royal Military School of Music, Kneller Hall, Twickenham, where his son claimed to have studied in his early life.

In 1891 the family are at 15 Venus Street, Everton – not a great distance from Bala Street; Mary Eleanor has married, Emily is with her mother (see below) and Edward is a musician. Edward died later in 1891 and Harriet in 1898.

Edward junior followed the irregular marriage habits of several of his uncles and aunts – 1881 finds him apparently with a wife, Elizabeth and three children (a fourth, Emily was with his parents as we have seen). However it seems that he never married this Elizabeth Ardern, who came from Buxton, although their two eldest children were born there. Two more were born in Manchester and a further two back in Derbyshire, but in 1891 Edward married Elizabeth Zumpf and it is she who appears as his wife in the 1891 Census, where they are visiting Gunter Grahe, a German importer who resided in Manchester. On both 1881 and 1891 Censuses Edward is given as “Professor of Music”. In 1901 Edward and Elizabeth are living at 45 West Wynford Street, Salford (Edward is now a Musical Conductor) – they do not seem to have any children and Edward died in early 1902. Between 1875 and 1898, Edward played with the Halle Orchestra, as a violinist (early in his career he gained a reputation as a celebrated cornet player like his father) and may well have been a teacher with Charles Halle’s Northern College of Music. Towards the end of his time with the Halle he was a principal violinist, leaving in 1898 to concentrate on conducting.

Halle Orchestra 1888 [6]

Halle Orchestra poster 1888 showing Edward Flexney in the second violins

Edward’s children mostly used the surname Ardern, although the eldest, Charles Edward called himself Flexney. Both Charles (a professional soldier) and his younger brother, George Ardern were killed in the First World War and had no families of their own.

 

Agnes Flexney 1828-1902

Agnes was still living with her parents in Witney in 1851, aged 22, occupation Dressmaker. In 1861 she was in the household at Redcliffe Parade, Bristol that contained several of her siblings (see above under Mary Ann). Now 32 and still a dressmaker, she called herself Agnes Francis, widow and there is a child in the dwelling, Agnes Flexney aged 5. We have several problems here – firstly no record of a Flexney/Francis marriage can be found; secondly the birth certificate of the child Agnes is full of contradictions; and finally there is no obvious individual who fits the information we can find about a putative father.

Agnes Flexney junior was born on 15th March 1856 at 32 Colston Street, Bedminster (which would now be called Redcliffe – between Redcliffe Hill and Temple Way). Under “name of father” we have Edward Flexney, occupation “solicitor’s clerk”. Agnes senior was the informant. She gives her name as Agnes Flexney, formerly Francis (yet in 1861 is again Agnes Francis) On the 1871 Census the younger Agnes is called Agnes Francis and when she married Edward Neale in 1878 she gives her name as Agnes Flexney Francis and her father’s as James Francis, solicitor. Did the elusive Mr Francis exist at all? I can find no individual in the Census records who fits.

Agnes senior (as Agnes Francis) married William Chipperfield Hutchings in early 1871, and on the Census that year the family are living with William’s grandparents at 14 Guinea Street, Redcliffe. Also in the household are the younger Agnes and her grandmother, Mary Flexney, listed as lodgers: Mary is listed as “annuitant”, Agnes senior as “milliner” and young Agnes Francis, aged 15 as “school teacher”. Mary was to die at 14 Guinea Street on 26th September 1878, aged 82 and was buried in the churchyard of St Mary Redcliffe. As we have seen young Agnes married Edward Neale in the same year, but William and Agnes senior continued to live at the same address until Agnes died in 1902.

14 Guinea Street {1}

Not a large house (the illustration shows Nos 13 and 14), it contained 16 people in 1871 – the numbers decrease over the years, until by 1901 there are only 8 inhabitants; but still, life must have been crowded. William and Agnes appear to have had no children together but his cousin, James Price, who also lived there had several, and there were nearly always some lodgers as well.

 

Charles Richard Flexney 1831-92

Witney Town Band 1850 Reproduced with the kind permission of the Witney Town Band [12]

Witney Town Band 1850

Charles Richard was baptised on 17 July 1831 at St Mary’s, Witney. Although he gives his full name on marriage certificates, he always appears as Richard on the Census records, so we can assume that this is how he was generally known. He is with his parents in 1841, but he next turns up in Wrexham, north Wales ten years later, along with his younger brother, Frederick, another Flexney (unidentified) and Robert Golding from Ireland. They are all listed as musicians and seem to be staying for the Wrexham March Fair – a major event in the area, at The Blossoms Inn, Charles Street. Their names are marked with a note explaining that they were “strangers during the annual fair” There were quite a few other musicians, entertainers and hawkers in the town at the same Census. It is possible that one or more of the brothers are in the photograph above which shows the Witney Town Band in 1850.

At some time during the 1850s Richard moved to London, where he seems to have lived for the rest of his life. On 3rd December 1857 he married Ann Goodwin at St Nicholas, Deptford and the 1861 Census has them residing at 39 Fellows Street in the district of St Marys, Haggerstone. In 1868 a daughter, Annie was born in Islington and 1871 finds the small family at 13 Curzon Street, Shoreditch. In all the records we have for him, Charles Richard is always shown as a musician. Ann worked for some time as a “dresser” at Astley’s Theatre, according to a newspaper account of a robbery in 1872. She was knocked down and clothing she was carrying home was stolen. By 1881 however a drastic change had come about. Ann is now living at 9 Wood Wharf, Greenwich with daughter Annie. She is shown as “wife”, “married” and a charwoman. Meanwhile Richard is at 2 Lower John Street, Shoreditch with a new wife – Emma. In fact he had married Emma Mason (nee Charnton) at St Thomas, Bethnal Green just two months before, on 8th February 1881. As at his first marriage, Charles Richard made a mark rather than signing. This was obviously a bigamous marriage, but it seems never to have been detected by the authorities.

There were no children from this second marriage and it may not have fared any better than the first; second wife Emma is visiting friends or relatives in Bournemouth in 1891, and Richard is on his own in lodgings in Essex Street, Haggerston. The deaths of Richard and Emma Flexney are recorded in the first half of 1892 in Shoreditch District, so it could have been a temporary seperation. Ann is to be found in 1891 living as head of household at 83 Thames Street, Greenwich – she is described as “living on her own means” in a 6 roomed house with Annie who is now married to Alfred Argent. She appears to be better off than ever before – all her residences with Charles Richard were in multi-occupation houses. She still calls herself “married” but was only to enjoy two more years of independence, dying in 1893.

 

Frederick Flexney 1834-90

The information we have for Frederick is very similar to that for his elder brother Charles Richard. He is on the same census records in 1841 and 1851. That he was in London by 1854 is shown by his marriage to Priscilla Minton at St Johns, South Hackney. Unlike his brother, Frederick could sign his name and rather inflates his father’s occupation to “Blanket Manufacturer”. His bride was a minor, being born in 1837, but so too was Frederick – he describes himself as “of full age”, yet was only just twenty, being born in February or March 1834. Frederick’s family life was to be more conventional than his elder brother’s. The 1861 Census finds the family at 15 Provost Street, Shoreditch, although the birthplace of the children shows a degree of movement: Priscilla Agnes (known as Agnes) Islington, 1855: Louisa, Shoreditch 1857 and Frederick Richard, Bethnal Green 1859. Over the years six more children were to follow (two of whom died in their first year) and all of them with the exception of the final child (Ann Elizabeth, born & died 1875, baptized at St Anne, Shoreditch) were baptized at St Johns, Hoxton.

 

The family were still in Provost Street, at No 56 in 1871, and ten years later were at 13 Bacchus Walk, just off Hoxton Road. Frederick is always described simply as “musician” and they are always the second listed family in a two family property occupation. We do not know what type of music the two brothers played – long before the days of recording there was, no doubt, a large popular demand for live musical entertainments and the East End must have had its fair share of music halls and other similar venues. It seems however, that the family did not enjoy much prosperity. On his death in November 1890 the following notice appeared in The Era, the musical and theatre newspaper of the time:

TO THE BROTHERS FLEXNEYS and MUSICIANS – I am sorry to say that poor Fred. Flexney, after a long illness, was buried last Sunday, and Smallest Donation will be thankfully received by his old Friends Jim M’Grath and Fred, Alexander to help pay for the Funeral and a bit for the Widow and Boy. Address, 47 Alma Street, St John’s Road, Hoxton, London. P.S. – All letters answered.

Frederick died at the early age of 56 and Priscilla survived him for six years, dying in 1896. One wonders if his brothers contributed to his funeral or helped the family – it would seem few of them were in a position to do so.

It is from Fred and Priscilla or the Yorkshire family that any British Flexneys alive today are descended.

 

Selina Flexney 1837-1918

Apart from the Census and Birth, Marriage & Death indices we have very little information for Selina’s life. In late 1856 she married Charles Hadden in Witney. This was three years after the death of her father, so possibly, with her youngest daughter settled, this was the trigger for the departure of Mary Flexney to join her children in Bristol. In any event the couple had two children in Witney, Mary Ann (or Anna ) in 1857 and Selina in 1860. By the time of the Census of 1861 the family had joined the other members of the Flexney clan in Redcliffe (see above). They were at 12 Nelson Place with two other families (fourteen individuals in all). Another family in the house consisted of Henry Woodcock aged 22, a Chair Maker, born in Witney, together with his nineteen-year old wife Elizabeth, and baby daughter, Eliza. Henry was the son of John Woodcock the schoolmaster and we shall meet Elizabeth again later. Charles Hadden’s occupation in 1861 is given as labourer and ten years later he is a “Brewery Labourer”. This is last we hear of Charles – he died in 1880.

Charles and Selina had five more children whilst in Bristol – all sons; Charles William (1862), Edward (1864), Thomas (1872), William (1874) and Alfred (1879). By 1871 they had moved to the Dings area of St Philip & St Jacob parish, a district noted for its tough working class reputation. They are always found in Folly Lane, usually in one of the terraces of houses it contained: Cannon Place in 1871, Adelaide Place in 1881 and Folly Lane itself in 1891. By 1901 Selina, by then a widow for more than twenty years had moved to Queen Victoria Street, a few hundred yards away, close to the main railway lines that ran into Temple Meads station.

 

Folly Lane must have been a fairly unpleasant area to live in. Bounded on two sides by railway sidings and major engine sheds, to the east lay a major gas works, which, by the 1880s necessitated the demolition of Adelaide Place in order to accommodate a second gasometer. As far as we can tell, Selina was the last of Edward and Mary’s children to die – living until the spring of 1918.

 

John Flexney 1840-?

John was born on 9th May 1840 and baptised just under a month later at St Mary’s, Witney like all his siblings, and he appears on the 1841 Census as a child of one; on the 1851 Census he is shown with his parents, living at Wood Green. As we have seen above, John was residing at Redcliffe Parade in 1861, along with Mary Ann, Agnes and Daniel and his occupation is given as “Porter”. This Census was taken on the night of 7/8th April and just six weeks later John was married to Maria Noyes at St Pauls, Bedminster. According to the certificate John was living at Wapping, which was an area near the docks, just to the west of Redcliffe, between the Floating Harbour and the New Cut. Strangely enough, Maria’s address is Philip Street, Bedminster. Could this just have been a convenience address, so the banns could be called at St Pauls, for the Census of April shows her living with her parents, above her father’s bootmaking business in Temple Way, Redcliffe? It must be added though, that Maria had had a child, Arthur John Noyes, baptized in Bedminster the previous year, although the infant only lived a few months.

John Flexney and Maria Noyes marriage certificate 1861 [7]

John worked as a railway porter for the Great Western Railway, probably at Temple Meads (He was certainly there in 1877 when a he appeared as a witness in court in a case of theft). A twice daily trip from his home in the Redcliffe area to the station would have taken him past Mr. Noyes’ shop, and possibly inside to order new boots and converse with the young lady serving?

Temple Gate, Bath Parade [11]

The photograph shows William Noyes shop in Bath Parade, Temple Gate. It is the second on the right from the public house, with a rectangular sign between the downstairs and upstairs window. It stood exactly facing the entrance of the original Temple Meads building of Isambard Kingdom Brunel. Most of the people photographed stood perfectly still as required, but there seems to be a ghost image of a child or children outside the Noyes’ shop. They obviously lacked the necessary patience. This photograph dates to 1892, but not much had changed in the intervening thirty years.

John and Maria’s first child, Ada Maria Constance was born in April 1862 at 50 Weare Street, Bedminster. Sadly little Ada died before the year was out, but the following year a son, Frank Noyes Flexney was born. By this time the family had moved to 25 Mead Street, which lay next to Weare Street. Two years later a third child was born, Kate Alice, and by 1870 they had moved to No 51, where Wrights Directory lists John Flexney. The family were still at this address when the Census was taken in 1871 and John is now described as a “Foreman Railway Porter”. In addition they have two boarders, both railway porters, one of whom is John’s nephew, Frederick Bridgman, the son of his sister, Marlin. There is also a second family living in the house.

Wright’s Directory for 1876 shows that John and Maria had moved to 6 Cambridge Street in Totterdown, and when they had their daughter Kate baptized in that year, John is described as a “Clerk”.

Cambridge Street, Totterdown

Houses in Cambridge Street (No 6 has been demolished)

What had seemed to be a steady improvement in the family standing was to end by 1880. That is the final year in which John was to appear in the Directory, indeed, when Maria died at the tragically early age of 37, he may not even have been living at home. The causes of Maria’s death are recorded on the death certificate as “Albuminuria 7 years, Dropsy, Coma”, so it seems as if she had been an invalid for some time, and her father, William Noyes is the informant, “in attendance”. Her husband, John is described as a labourer. When his son Frank married in January of the following year he still gives John’s occupation as labourer, but in the Census just a few months later, John describes himself (like his elder brothers) as a musician. He is living at a lodging house at 25/6 Albert Road, Swindon, and is one of twenty boarders there on Census night; two others are musicians so it is possible they were travelling as a group.

We can’t tell if John ever returned to Bristol. The 1881 Census shows his son Frank already married and working as a porter in a private school in Redland, whilst daughter Kate was living with her maternal aunt, Clara Noyes. Apart from a single entry in the next Census no further trace of John has yet been found – not even a record of his death. In 1891 John is still a musician and again in Wiltshire, this time in a caravan belonging to a travelling show – “The Wild West” which was stopping at Sherston Magna. The company occupied five caravans and comprised two “proprietors”, three musicians, a stall keeper, groom, three acrobats, three general labourers (male) and two general servants (female) as well as four children, who were the grandchildren of Eliza Harvey, one of the proprietors. The other two musicians, apart from John, were Eliza’s two sons and the stall keeper was her daughter-in-law.

John was only fifty at the time of this last record, so it is possible he may have emigrated, lived under an assumed name or simply died unnoticed by the officialdom of the period. We may never know.

John and Maria’s son Frank stayed in Bristol and married Leah Fook, who was nine years his senior, although not until after they had had a daughter together. In all they had nine children, of whom seven survived into adulthood.

Frank and Leah Flexney c1905 [4]

Their photograph, taken around 1905 shows a confident, prosperous couple, verging onto middle class status, however Frank was to die seven years later and his two sons, Francis & Oliver both perished in the First World War, like their Manchester cousins, so no male members of the family were left. The last individual to bear the Flexney name in Bristol was Frank and Leah’s daughter, my great aunt, Lily Maria who married at the advanced age of 62 in 1953.

Daniel Flexney 1843-1917

Edward and Mary’s youngest child, Daniel was baptised at St Mary’s Church on 23 July 1843 and appears on the 1851 Census with his parents, living at Wood Green, Witney. Ten years later he is in Bristol, in the households of the Flexneys and Woodcocks at 1 Redcliffe Parade. Under the occupation column is written “An Apprentice”, unusually vague for an enumerator. We know from later records that Daniel became a Chair Maker, so can presume he was engaged in the furniture trade at seventeen. Also in the house and the only person not a member of the two families is Emily Hewlet, aged seventeen like Daniel, and a Pupil Teacher. This was a senior pupil who had graduated to teaching the younger children and would normally, in the course of time, become a teacher herself. It may be that Emily taught in the Recliffe National School where John Woodcock was a master.

John Flexney Census 1861 copy

1861 Census showing the Woodcocks, Flexneys and Emily Hewlet

Just two years later, on 7th July 1863 Daniel and Emily were married at St Hilary, Glamorgan, a village a few miles west of Cardiff. Although Emily was born in Bristol (in 1851 she was living with an uncle in Bedminster), her mother, Anne, who witnessed the marriage hailed from South Wales, so perhaps this is the reason for the place chosen for the wedding. Daniel’s occupation is given as Cabinet Maker. Just seven weeks later their first child, Frances Annie was born (25th August 1863). The couple had two more children, Mary Eleanor (1865) and Henry Edward (1867). The two former were born in Mead Street, Bedminster and son Harry in Somerset Street. So the family resided quite close to Daniel’s elder brother, John. By 1871 the marriage had broken down completely however. It is interesting that the certified copy of their marriage certificate I have bears the date 5th February 1868, just a month after her son’s birth; did Emily require legal confirmation that the marriage had taken place?

In the Census of 1871, we have seen that Mary Eleanor was living with Daniel’s brother Edward under the name of Nelly. Young Harry was boarding with a family called Sprake in Banwell, Somerset and Emily was employed as a nurse in the house of Thomas Rich, a chemist, at 32 High Street, Weston Super Mare. Meanwhile Daniel is recorded in a multi-occupancy house at 2 Cannon Street, St James. He is now described as a chair maker and has a new wife, Elizabeth and two children, Alice aged 8 and Annie, 7. We can assume that Annie is his daughter, Frances Annie, but who are Elizabeth and Alice? We need to retrace our steps to the Woodcock family who were in the same house as Selina Flexney and her husband, Charles Hadden in 1861. Henry Woodcock (a chair maker like Daniel) was one of the sons of John Woodcock the teacher by his first wife Fanny. He married Elizabeth Smith in Bedminster in 1859, and they were to have five children, among them an Emily in late 1862 and Elizabeth Jane in 1870. We can’t tell when Daniel and Elizabeth moved in together, but it is possible that the Alice in the 1871 Census is, in fact, Emily Woodcock, perhaps her real name being an embarrassment. I haven’t yet traced Elizabeth’s other children in that year; they were presumably with Henry who died in 1872. We have a further problem with the children in Daniel’s household in 1881, but before that another major crisis was to hit the household.

In October 1876 Daniel and Elizabeth were married in Bristol. Unlike in the case of his elder brother Charles Richard, the authorities found out and Daniel was tried for bigamy in March 1877. In his defence he claimed that his first marriage had broken down after three years and that he and Emily had agreed to separate “owing to domestic differences” and he agreed to pay her 2/6d a week. He also claimed that “an accountant” advised him this was as good as a divorce. He added that both he and Elizabeth thought that remarriage was allowed after such a long separation. If this story of the first marriage was true, it means that Daniel and Emily had split up before the birth of Harry and it was several years before he and Elizabeth set up home – her youngest daughter with Henry Woodcock was born around April 1870. However, in spite of both prosecution and defence requesting leniency in the case, Daniel was sentenced to 3 months with hard labour after pleading guilty.

The 1881 Census finds Emily Flexney, now describing herself as a widow, living with her mother, Ann Hewlett in Ealing, West London. She is a dressmaker and Ann an annuitant. Not too far away Harry, now aged 15 is living-in at the White Hart, Windmill Road, his occupation “Pot Boy”. Meanwhile Daniel and Elizabeth are living back in Nelson Place, Redcliffe, at No 10. With them are two unmarried daughters, Jane W. Flexney, a “general servant”, aged 17 and Jane Woodcock, 11 a scholar. The latter is presumably Elizabeth Jane, the youngest daughter of Henry and Elizabeth, but who is the former? I can find no answer to this quandary – could it be Alice/Emily, born 1862 in another guise? But why Flexney for one girl and Woodcock for the other in that case?

By 1891 several people in this sad saga had died. Young Harry in London was first, towards the end of 1882, and then Ann Hewlett in 1887. Finally around August 1888 Elizabeth Woodcock/Flexney died in Bristol. She and Daniel do not seem to have had any children together, but she had lived just long enough to see her daughter Elizabeth Jane marry Alfred Langdon earlier that year. Whether or not their family tragedies had brought them closer, in the Census of 1891 Daniel and his first wife Emily were back together, living in Ducie Road, Lawrence Hill. Emily died in 1899 and by the census two years later Daniel was living in Sheffield, a lone boarder with a local family. His occupation is still chair maker, but the word “cabinet” has been added, as had happened in some other censuses. 1911 finds Daniel back in South Wales, living in the household of Margret Ace, a widow with two children. There are two other lodgers in the house, at 59 Fleet Street, Swansea, but they appear at the bottom of the list, below the Ace children – Daniel appears next after Margret. Daniel died of a heart attack in Swansea on 12th April 1917 and although he died in the Swansea Workhouse Infirmary, his address is given as 69 Fleet Street. He was 73.

Daniel’s two daughters both married and seem to be flourishing in the 1901 Census. Mary Eleanor had married Daniel Jones in Liverpool in 1882 and had two daughters, Ivy and Violet. Frances Annie wed Henry Searle at St John’s Bedminster on 7th July 1884 and by the Census of 1901 she had presented him with six sons and then two daughters. Although Henry was to die in 1907, Frances Annie lived on to 1931.

Frances Annie Flexney in later years. Reproduced with the kind permission of Mr N Mills [3]

Frances Annie Searle nee Flexney

(Reproduced with the kind permission of Mr N Mills)

 

 

Bath and Bristol

Earl Street, St James

The Gibbs Family

The ancestors of Joan Gibbs mostly hailed from Bath and south Gloucestershire, yet gravitated to Bristol during the course of the nineteenth century. The earliest member of the family we can be positive about was John Gibbs who was born around 1810 in the Walcot area of Bath. He is almost certainly the individual baptised at St Swithins, Walcot on 17th December 1809, the son of Thomas and Mary Gibbs. They themselves had been married at the chapel of ease of St Mary, Queen’s Square, which was part of the large parish of Walcot, on 1st February 1807, both being shown as widowers. Mary’s previous husband was named Smith, but earlier records are unable to pinpoint her maiden name. Thomas was probably the person whose burial is recorded at St Swithins on January 4th 1819 aged 59 but we can be sure that Mary’s burial is that recorded at the same church on June 26th 1838, as her place of death is given as 62 Avon Street, Walcot which is the address of her son, John the following year.

St Swithin Walcot R

St Swithin’s Walcot

 

John Gibbs had married Amelia Helps on May 19th 1833 at St Swithins. Amelia’s family also came from the Walcot area, her father, William, a plasterer had died (aged 33) in 1819; her mother was born Elizabeth Vincent around 1776 and the couple had married at Bathwick before moving to Walcot, where they had four children baptised, Amelia being the third in 1815.

Following their marriage, John and Amelia seem to have moved to Bristol – their first two children, Amelia (1834) and Thomas (1836) both give Bristol as their place of birth on later census records and their baptisms are recorded at Holy Trinity church St Phillips. By the middle of 1839 the family were back in Bath however, and their next child, William was born at 62 Avon Street on 1st June of that year. John’s occupation is given as “comb maker”, and he continues to give this in future years along with his other profession in the retail trade. In due course, three other children appear in the records; Elizabeth Helps (1842), Frederick (1851) and Robert Frederick (1854). By the time of the 1841 Census the family were living in Stable Lane, Walcot, and ten years later were in Bridewell Lane, closer to the centre of the city. This is where John seems to have carried on his occupations as variously a Toy Dealer, China and Glass Dealer, and Newsagent as well as continuing as a Comb Maker. Their businesses certainly are listed in directories as being here, even after the family moved residence to Hartley Place.

Hartley Place map

Hartley Place off Lansdown Road, Bath

The 1851 census, when the family were in Bridewell Lane, gives John as a Comb Maker and Amelia as a “Shop Huckstress”. This indicates that she was already in the retail trade, a Huckster being a person who sold small items from a tray, either instore or door-to-door (like a pedlar). Perhaps it was Amelia who built up the retail business that the Gibbs’ carried on throughout the rest of their lives. By 1871 John was described as a General Dealer, but no more occupations are recorded for Amelia until 1881 (after John’s death) when she is described as a “Newsagent”. The family stayed in Hartley Place (a court of five or six houses, just off Lansdown Road) until after John’s death in 1880. By 1891 Amelia had moved just around the corner to become a lodger at 12 Guinea Lane. She is described as a “Retired Shopkeeper”. John died early in 1880 and was buried in Locksbrook Cemetery which served the St Swithins parish.

12 Guinea Lane Bath

12 Guinea Lane

Amelia Gibbs died in early summer 1900 and was buried with her husband (the cemetery record notes “2nd interment”) at Locksbrook on July 21st of that year.

It is gratifying to be able to record the history of one’s family and such accounts tend to gloss over the situations where no progress can be made. I try to research the story of all the siblings of my ancestors, although they are generally not mentioned in these articles. One such problem ancestor is the eldest daughter of John and Amelia; named Amelia like her mother she was born, as we have seen, in Bristol in 1834, and in December 1859 she married Henry Abraham at Bathwick church. A son, Mark was born in April 1860, but died at the age of five weeks and was buried at Bathwick. Thereafter I can find no record at all of Amelia. In the 1861 Census, Henry is living with his parents and described as “married” and twenty years later he married again, but I can find no death or any other trace of Amelia under either her maiden or married name.

Water Street, Bristol

Water Street, St Pauls

The two eldest sons of John and Amelia continued the family tradition by moving to Bristol early in their adult lives. The 1861 Census finds them at 11 Water Street, St Pauls. There were two households there – the Mitchell family, and Ellen Cornwell and her son, with whom the brothers were lodging. Both Ellen and the head of the Mitchell family, Henry had been born in Wotton under Edge in Gloucestershire, although all of the Mitchell children had been born in Walcot. We shall return to this family later, as the eldest daughter, Mary Ann was to marry William Gibbs later that year. She is described as a servant and William is a Chair Maker. Interestingly they married at St Swithin’s Walcot, which was the home parish of both of them, but seem to have lived virtually all of their married lives in the St James area of Bristol. The birth of their eldest son, William Henry is registered in Bristol in the quarter ending 31st December 1861, whilst the wedding took place on the 15th December of that year, presumably after the birth.

The second son, Frederick Samuel was christened at St Pauls in Bristol, but most of the baptisms of their growing family took place at St James, and the Census returns show them living at West Street in 1871 and Earl Street in 1891. The Census for 1881 shows the family returning to Bath and living with William’s recently widowed mother, Amelia at Hartley Place.

St James c1800

St James church

William’s occupation is normally shown as “Chair Frame Maker”, but the 1891 Census shows an interesting range of jobs for his children: Frederick and John who were married and not living at home at this time were respectively a mason’s labourer and a french polisher; William was a nail cutter, Mary Amelia (born 1870, sometimes Emily) was a seamstress, Thomas (1873) a chair maker, like his father, Henry (1874) a pawnbroker’s assistant, Robert Charles (1876) an errand boy and young Albert Edward (1886) was still a scholar; Albert Edward later became a collier like his elder brother Frederick Samuel and was killed in the First World War near Cambrai in 1917.

 

The 1891 Census was the last in which William and Mary Ann appear –she died in 1895 aged 53 and he died in 1898 aged 59 – and the family were back in St James Parish, Bristol, living at 11 Earl Street. Apart from the sojourn in Bath they seem to have always lived in the close-packed streets and lanes just to the north of St James Church. It was obviously a tight-knit community who lived in one another’s pockets. At the same address in 1881 William’s sons, William, Frederick and John were boarders with the family of Edwin Horsford – this Edwin was a chair frame maker like William and was a fellow boarder with him in 1861 with the Mitchell family (see above). Another boarder at the Horsfield’s was a Joseph Cavill – he was still at No.11 in 1891 with William’s family, and also in 1911 with William’s son John. The Horsford family had moved to No.7.

St James area

The area north of St James Church where the Gibbs family lived until the early twentieth century

As we have seen, John Gibbs, the son of William and Mary Ann had stayed behind in Bristol when his parents moved briefly to Bath. In 1881, still aged only 14 he is listed as french polisher’s apprentice. He was presumably following his Mitchell grandfather, Henry into that occupation and in 1891 was living at 15 Upper Montague Street with his wife, Ada (nee Street) and first child, Amelia.

Earl Street 2

Earl Street, St James

By 1901 John and Ada were back at 11 Earl Street with their growing family. Amelia was now 11 and the next daughter, Ada, (born 1891) was staying with her Street grandmother. We then have Elizabeth Emily (8), Mary Gladys (6) Mabel Martha (3) and Frederick Charles (1). A final son, Albert, was to be born the following year. Also in the household there were five lodgers, including Joseph Cavill and his son (also Joseph) and John’s younger brother, Henry who was now a woodcarver. Tragedy was to strike the family soon however, as John died at the early age of 40 on 20 March 1907, of cirrhosis of the liver. This may have been caused in part by his work with strong chemicals, but it is also worth noting that by 1911 younger brother Henry was the landlord of the White Hart in Earl Street.

Gay Street c1900

Gay Street from the top c1900

How the family coped without a breadwinner is impossible to say, but I have not been able to trace them on the 1911 Census so far. Obviously as the children grew and went out to work, life must have improved and in 1913-4 they were living in Hillgrove Cottage, Carolina Row (a short street connecting King’s Square to the bottom of Gay Street). By 1915 they were living at 4 Gay Street, Kingsdown, just to the north of the area where they were born and brought up. Ada Gibbs is reported to have kept her connections with St James’ as she was a cleaner in the church around this time. No 4 is the second house from the right in the photograph above, which shows the street from the top. It appears there is a small girl playing with her pram outside.
One by one the children married and moved away, apart from Mabel, whose fiance died before they could marry. Elizabeth also had a wartime romance with a soldier who was subsequently killed and the relationship resulted in the birth of Joan Ethel Gibbs (1918). Elizabeth later married Herbert Eason. Both of John and Ada’s sons entered military service. Frederick actually enlisted on April 26th 1915 when he was still 14 years and 9 months old; he claimed he was 18. His deception lasted almost a year before he was discharged in March 1916 for having “made a mis-statement” on his attestation document. He later became a regular soldier and took part in the evacuation at Dunkirk in 1940. His younger brother Albert was too young for the First World War but, having been in the North Somerset Yeomanry already, enlisted in the Royal Tank Corps in 1923. He served eight years and returned to his trade of leaded light glazing. Ada Gibbs died in 1935, by which time she was living with her daughter, Mabel and young Joan at Mabel’s house at 7 Greenway Park, Southmead. Mabel spent all her working life at Wills Tobacco factory in Bedminster and had nor long retired when she died suddenly in 1956.
The photograph below shows most of Ada’s family on the occasion of the marriage of Mary Gladys (known in the family as Polly) to Bertie Horwood on 2 July 1921. The wedding was at St James and this photograph was probably taken at the back of 4 Gay Street

Gladys Gibbs wedding

Standing: Unknown (bridesmaid?) Unkown (best man?), Frederick, Mabel, Elizabeth Willis (Ada’s sister), Albert, Amelia.
Sitting: Bertie Horwood, Mary Gladys, Ada Gibbs with Joan on her lap.

 

Election Fever

35

William Hogarth – Polling Day

Elections of one sort or another have been constantly in the news for the past few years and the prospect of yet more hangs above our heads like the sword of Damocles. So, as my genealogical side took over, I decided to look back at the voting record of my ancestors and try and discern what were their motives or priorities in the way in which they cast their ballots.

Of my immediate forebears I can say little, other than than guess how they voted and why; I’m fairly sure I know how my parents cast their vote from conversations with them; my grandparents less so. Beyond that all is a mystery caused by the secret ballot which was introduced in the UK in 1872. Of course, prior to the 1920s my female ancestors did not have the vote, and few of my male ones did either before the Second Reform Act of 1867. However, when the ballot was not secret, the lists of voters and for whom they voted were printed and published for all to see. In many cases, no doubt, many voted with this in mind; it did not go unnoticed that one’s employer, landlord or creditor would discover where your vote was cast.

The constituences of the pre-Reform Act Parliament which existed until 1831 were vastly different to the ones we know today. Everyone has heard of the “Rotten Boroughs” where the franchise was exercised by a handful of people; in the notorious case of Old Sarum in Wiltshire there were at one time just 7 electors, controlled by the local landowner who owned all the houses by which they exercised their voting rights. There were many others, all returning two members to Parliament. In addition though, there were the free boroughs where the franchise was extended to all freemen or burgesses. Some of these, like Westminster or Bristol had very large electorates indeed, Bristol usually recording a total of over 5000 votes in any election. As well as the boroughs, each county returned two “Knights of the Shire” who were elected by a land-owning or renting franchise. Quite often in the 18th century at least, elections in the shires were not contested as the Tories or “Country” party normally took all the seats.

William_Pitt_addressing_the_House_of_Commons_on_the_outbreak_of_war_with_Austria_(by_Karl_Anton_Hickel)

William Pitt the younger addressing the House

The Parliament these conditions gave rise to were again very different to that of the post-Reform Act assemblies. The core of the house was the “Tory” knights of the shires who generally voted according to their own consciences or desires. They did not necessarily back any particular line, whether government or opposition. There were also many placemen, usually elected from seats where the government could control elections; naval ports were the main ones, but there were others. These MPs always voted with the government. Finally there were the “professional politicians” who are the ones we have usually heard of; Pitt Fox and Burke for example. They normally sat for rotten or pocket boroughs, nominated by the patron of the seat, although some, like Burke, sat for the free boroughs and took their chances at election time. One must remember that the government of the day was very much the King’s government. No ministry could survive without the royal patronage, if not always the royal approval. The King appointed his ministers, but generally understood the need to have some chance of them securing a majority in the House of Commons when required. In the 18th century, it should be noted, no government ever lost a general election.

Although we still use the labels “Tory” and “Whig” for the factions in Parliament, they do not really mean very much; what was required to govern was the confidence of the King and a majority in the House. Some have preferred the labels “Ins” and “Outs” as being more realistic.

I am lucky in having several ancestors who were enfranchised at one time or another. There are one or two who appear on a voting list where I cannot find a Poll Book with the votes cast, but in two cases my forebears were freemen of boroughs where the data for every election survives.

1721 Bristol Poll Book

The published Poll Book for the 1721 election in Bristol

John Harwood (sometimes spelt Horwood) was a house carpenter and merchant of Bristol. At the time of the 1721 election he is listed in the Poll Books as a Freeholder of St James parish. Other records show that he purchased property there in the early years of the century and his will (1744) makes mention of freehold houses he owns in St James’ Square and Merchant Street. His vote is recorded in three elections; 1721, 1734 and 1739.

John Horwood Poll 1721

John Horwood’s votes recorded in the Poll Book

In 1721 there were three candidates for the two places as MP for the City and County of Bristol: Sir Abraham Elton, Joseph Earle (John cast his vote for these two; every voter could choose one or two candidates) and William Hart. The final result was Earle 2141, Elton 1869 and Hart 1743, Elton and Earle being returned. Both the new MPs were prominent local men, Elton a previous Mayor and Earle a Sheriff of Bristol, and both are described as Whigs, whereas Hart was a Tory, but it seems that local considerations were uppermost in the voters’ minds – who would do best for Bristol and its trade. The election of 1727 saw the return of Abraham Elton (son of the winner of 1721) and John Scrope who was another Whig and Secretary to the Treasury. William Hart had decided to stand again, but was bribed by Elton to the sum of £1000, and did not proceed to the poll.

The mention of direct bribery, which in this case was denied, but expressed as a reimbursement to “offset election expenses”, reveals how rotten the system was even in the nominally “free boroughs”. As well as other candidates, voters were usually offered inducements, from free food and liquor to outright cash payments. A letter of the time records that at this 1727 election “The people who sold their votes have received from one to five guineas per man”, which shows how expensive campaigns could be.

In 1734 Elton and Scrope stood again, this time against the Tory Thomas Coster, but Scrope was beaten into third place, mainly because he had voted in Parliament for an Excise Bill (which as a government placeman he would have to) against the wishes of the Bristol Corporation. John Harwood again voted for the two Whigs. Thomas Coster died in 1739 and a by-election was called to replace him. On this occasion, a non-partisan, Henry Combe, a Bristol merchant stood against Sir Edward Southwell, a Whig country gentleman with no particular connection to the City. John Harwood voted for Combe but the establishment Southwell won by a narrow majority. Seemingly John Harwood voted for the local candidates who stood for the interests of Bristol merchants and trade, rather than strictly partisan party issues. The following election was unopposed and John died in 1745.

 

Several of my Bumstead ancestors, confusingly all called Stephen, were freemen of the town of Ipswich, and as such were entitled to vote in both the elections for the two MPs for Ipswich and the two Knights of the County MPs for Suffolk. The latter, however were virtually never contested and the only record I have of voting was in 1790 when Stephen Bumstead (1751-1831) voted for the successful Tory candidates Sir John Rous and Sir Thomas Charles Bunbury. Stephen is recorded as voting at all the Ipswich elections from 1784 until 1826; he is often referred to as “senior” after his son Stephen (1778-1841) became a freeman and acquired voting rights in 1800. Three of Stephen’s sons in turn became freemen and voted from the 1826 election onwards. In this latter election the three Stephens are recorded as “Stephen Bumpstead, Stephen Bumpstead junior and Stephen Bumpstead (London), my great great grandfather having moved to the capital sometime in the mid 1820s.

1826 Electoral Poll Book Ipswich copy

The 1826 Ipswich Poll Book

There is little point in listing the results of the many elections the family took part in, but they always voted for the Blue candidate. Party politics in Ipswich was a fiercely divisive matter and the parties were usually referred to as the Blues and the Yellows. The former were the “Country” party standing for the landowning interest, but also the upholding of the established church and establishment in general; they were generally coalescing into the Tory party whilst the Yellows adhered to the Whigs and represented a more radical outlook. Election time was noisy and often violent with gangs of dockers and others terrorising the town and trying to persuade voters one way or the other; as in Bristol in earlier days, bribery and coercion were common. The open ballot and the time taken (elections were often spead over four or five days) presented plenty of opportunity for pressure of one sort or another to be applied. For the voters though there were good pickings, if one was careful. It is interesting that the three Bumstead brothers all travelled from London to Ipswich to vote in the late 1820s and 1830s, which meant a couple of days travelling and time off work – could they really have been such sincere party adherents?

14

Mr Pickwick at the Eatanswill Election Hustings

A wonderfully satirical glimpse into contemporary elections is seen in Charles Dickens’ “Pickwick Papers” when Mr Pickwick and his companions visit the town of “Eatanswill” at polling time; Eatanswill is actually Sudbury in Suffolk and the atmosphere must have been very similar to nearby Ipswich. All the corruption and fraud around elections necessarily produced results that were challenged. In Ipswich, both the 1820 and 1826 results were overturned on appeal, the first resulting in the two Blue candidates being disqualified and the Yellows triumphing; in 1826 exactly the opposite was the case.

Tory ad 1823

1823 Ipswich newspaper advertisement

Apart from election time, at least one of the Bumsteads took an active role in political matters. Two newspaper advertisements give an indication of this. One lists a Stephen Bumstead amongst the signatories protesting at the invitation (by the Yellows no doubt) made to Daniel O’Connell, the Irish Nationalist to speak in Ipswich in 1836 and another dated 1823 indicates the establishment of a constituency group to advance conservative principles. Again Stephen Bumstead is one of the names listed. With the deaths of all three bearers of the name in the period 1831-46, this stage of my forebears political life draws to a close. The next generation (yet another Stephen 1844-1903) had to wait for the later 19th century reform acts before he appeared on a list of electors in Bristol in 1897.

1897 Stephen Bumstead electoral roll copy

 

Another alias, alas

Hailey Chapel copy

 

In researching family history one continuously comes across the problem of “how much proof do I need” to be sure one is making the correct connections and relationships. This is particularly true the further one delves back when the only source of information are often parish registers with perhaps the occasional will or other document to help. Even the registers cannot be relied upon as they were frequently copied up once a year from notebooks (if you’re lucky) or even scaps of paper notes made by a clerk or sexton. There are many omissions and mistakes in them which can rarely be checked. All these problems lead to an increasing number of “brick walls’ where one may have an inkling as to the truth, but no real proof. Which brings me to the Godfrey family of Hailey, near Witney in Oxfordshire.

My ancestor, Edward Flexney married Mary Godfrey at St Marys, Witney on March 12, 1815. They had a family of ten children and, following Edward’s death in 1853, several of them moved to Bristol where Mary is also found in 1861; she died in 1878 and was buried at St Mary Redcliffe. Mary was the illegitimate daughter of Merlin Godfrey and her baptism is recorded at Witney in August 1796. We can be confident that this is correct baptism as Mary named her eldest daughter Merlin and the name is used by other members of her family. It is a rare name, occurring just a few times in the 17th century in Oxfordshire and more often in the 18th. It is variously spelt Marlin, Merlin or Marlyn and is probably a pet-form or diminutive of Mary; it is the forerunner to the more recent Marilyn.

Merlin was the daughter of William Godfrey of Hailey and baptised at the chapel of St John in Hailey on June 25th 1780. This record and the baptism of her daughter Mary are the only records I can find of Merlin. So far I have not been able to discover a marriage or a burial for her. It is with her father, William Godfrey that we start to encounter problems. Several children are baptised in Hailey or Witney to a William and Elizabeth Godfrey and the confusion with names begins with what appears to be their eldest son who was baptised as John-Godfery son of William and Elizabeth Smith of Hailey. There is also presumably an elder sister, Tabitha baptised the previous year as Tabitha Smith. This led me to a marriage on August 13 1776 between Elizabeth Leveridge and William Smith alias Godfery at St Marys, Witney. William signed the register as William Smith. All their other children were baptised as either Godfrey, Smith Godfrey or some form indicating an alternative name of either Smith or Godfrey. Not finding any earlier form of the alias or double-barrelled name, and there being several possible baptisms for either a William Smith or a William Godfrey I let my research lapse for many years.

Making contact recently with someone else looking at this family, I resumed my efforts in trying to take this line further back and finding out why the alias might have come into use. Life has been made a little easier in recent years as the parish registers and wills for Oxfordshire have now come online. Searching the latter for Godfreys and Smiths I came across the will of John Godfrey, yeoman of Hailey who died in October 1782. In it he leaves some cash bequests to various nephews and nieces, mostly named Godfrey but the bulk of his estate is left to two brothers who are rather uniquely described as “Thomas the son of Ann Harris (heretofore Ann Smith Spinster) which she had before her Intermarriage with her present Husband John Harris the younger of Hailey aforesaid Yeoman” and “William the Son of the said Ann Harris which she likewise had before her Intermarriage with her said Husband the said John Harris”. William was to receive all John’s property, buildings and land in Hailey as well as all his personal possessions and money, whereas Thomas was to be paid £500 within one year of John’s death. This sum was to come from the estate and William was appointed sole executor. What does this lead us to conclude? To begin, William the executor at probate, swore an oath as “William Harris”, but it may be that was what was required owing to the wording of the will, which gives neither brother a surname. Could this therefore be William Smith alias Godfrey; if so it would provide an obvious solution to the problems with his surname.

From here on we are in the area of conjecture, but there are other pointers that may help. There is will of a Thomas Smith Godfrey made in 1809 and proved at London (in the Prerogative Court of Canterbury {PCC} – the highest probate court in England) on June 10th 1820. Thomas looks a good fit for the man mentioned in the will of John Godfrey. He was a butcher of Witney and the reason for the probate being granted at the PCC rather than Oxford was that he held government securities, Consols, which were deemed to “reside” in London; should an estate hold property in more than one diocese, probate could only be granted in the higher court. This Thomas left his estate to his wife, Elizabeth and son Daniel, but with the proviso that if both predeceased him it should go to his “reputed brother William Smith Godfrey of Woodgreen near Witney”, and failing that to William’s children. So it would appear even more likely that we are looking at the the two sons of Anne Smith/Harris named in John Godfrey’s will as the surnames fit the situation – the use of an alias can often indicate illegitimacy – and Woodgreen in Witney was at the time in the parish of Hailey rather than Witney itself, thus tying in with the location of John Godfrey’s farm.

In due course research into the manorial records of Hailey may help to provide further information and possibly proof of all these supposed connections, but to summarise, I will lay out what I consider the most likely narrative to explain the history of the Smith Godfrey family:

Baptism William Smith 1757

Baptismal record of William Smith in 1757

John Godfrey, the son of Daniel Godfrey of Hailey was born in 1707 and no record of his marrying exists. At some point he contracted a relationship with Anne Smith also of Hailey resulting in the birth of three children, William baptised 1757, Mary 1763 and Thomas 1765. The first two are shown in the register as “base born” but I think Thomas was the child baptised in June 1765 as Thomas Harris, the son of John and Anne. This marriage is the one referred to in the will of John Godfrey and took place in April 1765. My belief is that Thomas had already been born before the marriage but was baptised shortly afterwards as John Harris’ child. What the latter thought of this one can surmise, but it was not uncommon for men to marry a wife who was pregnant by another man and perhaps there was some financial inducement by John Godfrey; John Harris was a labourer when he married Anne Smith but is later described as a yeoman. I think both brothers would have normally been referred to as Smith (or possibly Harris in Thomas’ case) and nothing would have changed until possibly the point when William found out about his origins and was told he would inherit John Godfrey’s estate. This may have been at any time before John’s death in 1782, but I’m inclined to think it was in the late 1770s and was the cause of William beginning increasingly to use the Godfrey name. I can find no positive trace of Mary, the sister of William and Thomas. She may be the Mary Smith Godfrey buried at Hailey in 1796, but then it would be unusual for her not to be mentioned in John Godfrey’ will – unless of course she was not John’s daughter after all.

William Godfrey and his wife Elizabeth had a large family, twelve children in all including Merlin, and it may be that his social position declined in time. He looks likely to be the William Godfrey who was buried in Hailey in 1821 where he is described as a labourer. Possibly he was not a good farmer, or that the £500 he had to pay his brother in 1783 saddled the farm with debts it could not service. Agricultural depression following the Napoleonic Wars would not have helped. Thomas however prospered. There is no knowing what his estate was valued at in 1820 when he died, but it sounds substantial and his only son, Daniel went on to become a very prosperous solicitor.

 

Note: transcriptions of the wills of John Godfrey and Thomas Smith Godfrey will soon be available on the Oxfordshire FHS site of transcribed wills (here)

Now that’s what I call a Parish Register!

Lower Lamb St.

Lamb Street, St Augustine’s, Bristol

I thought I had reached another, all too frequent, brick wall in my research concerning my Gibbs/Street ancestors when I got back to Charles and Mary Gillard, the grandparents of Martha Ann Gillard who married George Street in 1863. The Gillard family lived in Lamb Street, close to Bristol Cathedral and Charles was a wheelwright. I could find no marriage for them in Bristol and judging by the registers of St Augustine the Less, the first child who was baptised there was Mary Ann (1808) followed by John (1810 – Martha Ann’s father) and five further children. So it was safe to assume they had married c1805-7.

Charles died in February 1851, maddeningly just a few weeks prior to the Census of that year which was the first to record places of birth. Mary however lived for another four years and the Census tells us that she was born in Oakhill in Somerset around 1783. Searching for a marriage of a Charles Gillard to a Mary I found one at St Peter and St Pauls, Shepton Mallet dated October 29 1805; “Mary Tapscot of this parish, spinster to Charles Gillard of the parish of Ashwick, sojourner”. Now this looked a real possibility as Oakhill is a village, indeed the main settlement, in the parish of Ashwick and it could be that Mary had moved to Shepton to work, or briefly stayed there to gain residency, and Charles was working and living in Ashwick, but came from elsewhere. Further researches found the baptism of “Mary dafter of Jacob and Martha Tapcut” on December 22nd 1781 at the church of St. James in Ashwick. I later found that Jacob and Martha became members of the Presbyterian congregation in the village, so perhaps that was why Mary married in a different parish, to avoid parental displeasure or embarrassment.

 

Parish_Church_of_St_Peter_and_St_Paul,_Shepton_Mallet_-_geograph.org.uk_-_378435

St Peter and St Paul, Shepton Mallet

All of this was speculation and I could find no further trace of Charles in surrounding parishes, nor any baptism in the whole of Somerset or Bristol that fitted. But the marriage suited the dates of the baptisms in Bristol, even if the gap between it and the baptism of Mary Ann at St Augustines was greater than normal. The problem of Charles and his origins was put aside for some time until I tried to research the Tapscotts further, and carrying out a search for Jacob Tapscott on a genealogical website, I was directed to an entry in the parish register of Henstridge in the south of the county. I was doubtful at first as Henstridge lies so far to the south that is is almost completely surrounded by Dorset parishes. Here however was the record of the baptism of James and Elizabeth, twins born July 26th and baptised September 14th 1806. There are two registers recording the same details for this period – one with rather better spelling than the other, but there is no clue as to which is the original and which the copy; in one each baptismal entry is separate and the other combines both children. The more legible entry reads:

James/Elizabeth twins son & daughter of Charles Gillard (who was son of Thomas Gillard Flaxdresser of this parish & Mary his wife) & Mary his wife (who was daughter of Jacob Tapscott Worsted Comber of Oakhill, Somerset & Martha his wife) born July 26th baptised September 14th 1806.

Baptism James and Elizabeth Gillard 1806

What we wouldn’t give to have more Parish Registers as full as this one. Not only the grandparents of the children, but the parish and occupation of the grandfathers too. For some reason the clerk or vicar only made this type of entry between 1802 and 1812. Before that there is the formulaic “John son of John and Mary Surname” and after the regular printed forms that commenced in 1813. In some cases he plainly didn’t know the details and left the space blank, but obviously tried to record all the information he could glean.

So this entry makes clear that we have the correct marriage for Charles and Mary and Mary’s parentage; in the Ashwick records Jacob is described as a Woolcomber (worsted is one of the two main techniques of wool combing) and Mary’s place of birth in the 1851 Census confirms we have the correct person.

Colonial Wool Comber Painting; Colonial Wool Comber Art Print for sale

So what of Charles and his family?

The parish register at Henstridge records just one baptism for Thomas and Mary Gillard, a son William who was christened there on October 11, 1789. Yet we know that Charles was their son, as too was a John whose eldest son, George was baptised at Henstridge in 1804 where the details of John’s parents are given in the same detail as Charles’. All of John Gillard’s other children were born in the village of Horsington, just to the north of Henstridge but baptised at Nether Compton. This village lies to the west of Henstridge, close to Yeovil,  and so much does the county boundary meander in this area that Melbourne Port in Somerset and Sherborne in Dorset lie between them.

Map Henstridge and Nether Compton

In the register of St Nicholas, Nether Compton can be found the baptism of Charles, son of Thomas and Mary Gillard, on July 15, 1781. Also baptised there are a daughter, Christian (1780) and another son, Thomas (1783). It is worth noting that both John and William are recorded as flax dressers in later documents, although William eventually enlisted in the 8th (Kings) Regiment of Foot and served from 1809 to 1827.

So we have Charles birthplace established, but there is no baptism for the eldest son, John. I cannot find one in the immediate area in either Somerset or Dorset or indeed a marriage for Thomas and Mary. However there is a marriage between a Thomas Gillard of Broadwindsor and Mary Guppey of Beaminster, which took place at St Marys, Beaminster on February 22nd 1775. A son, John was baptised at Broadwindsor on August 14th, 1776 and no further children of this marriage appear in any local registers. This date ties in exactly with John’s age in the Census of 1851 (74). The town of Beaminster which is only a little distance from Broadwindsor was a notable centre of flax growing and linen manufacture, so it is quite feasible that this is the same family who arrived in Nether Compton around 1778/9. So far, no definite trace of either Thomas or Mary’s baptism can be verified. Thomas and Mary remained in Henstridge until their deaths – Thomas in 1821 and Mary in 1836. Their ages as recorded in the burial register gives approximate birthdates of 1733 and 1752 respectively, so Thomas was about twenty years Mary’s senior. It may be that he was a widower at the time of their marriage – the register doesn’t say, only recording that Mary was a spinster. More research required!

Register entry courtesy of Somerset Heritage Centre

My great grandfather Stephen Bumstead 1844-1903

Stephen Bumstead copy
On 26th February 1843, Stephen Bumstead married Phoebe Ann Gait at St Mary’s Whitechapel in the east end of London. Stephen described himself as a plumber & glazier, and a widower, the son of another Stephen Bumstead, also a plumber & glazier. They both signed their names (Phoebe signed Phebe Ann Gaitt) and the witnesses were Mary Ann Bumstead and Henry Chapman. As we have seen (here) Stephen moved to London from Ipswich, where he was a Freeman and where his family had practiced the same trade for several generations. Mary Ann was his sister-in-law, wife of his brother William Wase Bumstead and a Henry Chapman appears in the 1841 census with the same occupation as Stephen, so he may be a colleague.

Prior to his marriage to Phoebe Stephen had been married to Elizabeth Kennedy who had died in 1838 and he seems to appear in the Census three years later where there is a Steven Bumstead, living at 57 Chiswell Street, Finsbury, sharing accomodation with Hannah Maguire. This Steven gave his occupation as “painter” and Hannah was a servant. The ages in that Census, unlike later ones were rounded down for adults to the nearest 5 years. Steven is shown as being 30, so he could have been 34, but he was in fact 39, if this is our Stephen. Hannah was 20. The next property listed on the Census is 95 Milton Street and interestingly our Stephen Bumstead gives his address as 96 Milton Street on the marriage certificate of 1843.

The first child of Stephen and Phoebe, a son also named Stephen was born on 14th January 1844 at 41 Betts Street, near St George’s Church in Stepney. Stephen’s occupation on the birth certificate is given as a painter.

Old Montague Street

Old Montague Street, Spitalfields

Stephen senior died on 31st May 1846 of Typhus Fever. His age is given as 46 and the family had moved north to Old Montague Street in Spitalfields. On the death certificate Stephen was given as a painter and glazier. He was buried in the churchyard of Christ Church, Spitalfields on June 3rd. Phoebe was by then expecting a second child; a daughter was born on September 28th and she was given the name Georgina Ellen Gait Bumstead at the registration of the birth the following month. Poor Phoebe was to suffer further grief as baby Georgina died at the age of 8 months on 22nd June 1847, and she too was buried at Christ Church. By then Phoebe appears to have remarried for she signed her daughter’s death certificate Pheby Ann Rogers.

Christ Church Spitalfields

Christ Church, Spitalfields

Although Phoebe still gave her Spitalfields address on Georgina’s death certificate, the baby actually died in Tranquil Vale, Blackheath. There is no obvious family connection to the area, but it is interesting that there was, at the time a family named Bumstead living in Blackheath Vale. The 1841 census shows a Mary Ann Bumstead and a daughter, Eliza and son Edward. Further searches have revealed that a Stephen Bumstead married Mary Ann Swain at St Margarets, Lee on 9th December 1811. Their children were baptised at St Alpheges in Greenwich in the succeeding years. This Stephen died in 1838.

Phoebe had not in fact remarried but had moved in with a George Rogers, who was almost certainly a cousin. He too had been in London for some time, although coming originally from Somerset, like Phoebe. His first wife had recently died, leaving him with a young son, another George. Although living together since 1847 and having several children, they did not finally marry until 1856. The story of Phoebe’s ancestors is told here and her personal story here.

George and Phoebe Rogers stayed in London for a short time, a daughter whom they also named Georgina Ellen Gait Rogers being born in the first half of 1848. By 1850 though, they had returned to Somerset, a second daughter, Lydia Ann being born in the village of Stanton Drew where the family was to stay for over forty years.

Rogers Family 1851 Census crop

Stanton Drew Census 1851

As can be seen Stephen now appears as Stephen Rogers, son of George and Phoebe. Besides the two girls there is George’s son, from his first marriage. By 1861 however a major development had taken place. The 1861 Census for Stanton Drew shows that the Rogers family had moved to the neighbouring village of Stowey (they were back in Stanton Drew by 1871) and grown with the addition of a son and two more daughters. Stephen was no longer with the family and had moved to Chew Magna, into the household of Samuel Gover, a blacksmith, whose apprentice he was. He had also reverted to the surname Bumstead (it appears as Bomsted in the 1861 Census).

We cannot know what happened to provoke this change – did Stephen fall out with his step-father or mother, or was he just asserting his independence. Interestingly he was baptised at Chew Magna (at the age of 16) on 18th March 1860, presumably whilst living there with the Gover family. He gives his father’s name as Stephen Bumstead, upholsterer. Was he only getting part of the story or perhaps guessing his father’s occupation? Later, on his marriage, he gave his father’s name as George Bumstead, Cabinet Maker – an interesting combination of the names of his biological & step fathers, although George Rogers was a carpenter rather than a cabinet maker.

By 1868 Stephen had moved to Bedminster and the next record we have of his life is the marriage to Louisa Peters who had also been living in Chew Magna. Louisa was a little older than Stephen (having been born on the 25th June 1842) and she was the mother of an illegitimate child. Her daughter had been born in Chew Magna in 1864 and registered under the name Rosina Fear Peters. It was common practice when a father would not (or could not) “do the decent thing” to give an illegitimate child the father’s surname as a middle name, and we can see that the father of Rosina was Samuel Fear (see here).

On the marriage certificate Stephen gave his address as North Street, Bedminster and Louisa was at West Street. Addresses at marriages are not always permanent residences – people used convenience addresses to be able for the Banns to be read – three weeks in a parish was enought for one to be considered a parish “member”. On the marriage certificate Stephen describes himself as a smith and on the Census of 1871, when the family were living at 29 Richmond Terrace, Bedminster he was still using the term Blacksmith. Rosina was given the surname Bumstead (or Bumpstead in the record).

A son, Frederick Walter, was born in 1879, and by the 1881 Census the family had moved to Canon’s Marsh. The address is difficult to read but appears to be “Offices, Heaven, John”. Stephen’s profession is now Engineer Driver for Saw Mills. A neighbour also worked in the timber trade and there were certainly timber yards on Canon’s Marsh in the nineteenth century, so it seems likely that the family lived “above the shop” in the company accomodation of John Heaven & Co. an established timber merchant in Canons Marsh. The progression to engineer was a natural one – many of the early journeyman engineers started their lives as blacksmiths, and Stephen seems to have stayed in the industry for the rest of his life, working on the stationary engines that powered the saws. On the census both Louisa and Rosina are recorded as Shirt Makers.

Canon's Marsh timber yard

One of the many timber yards on Canon’s Marsh

Not many records survive of Stephen’s life, but one that does concerns the drowning in Bristol Harbour, of a quay labourer, Peri Ryan who fell into the water between the mission ship Bethel and the quayside in December 1886. The newspaper report of the inquest tells how Stephen, the only witness, heard moans and saw the deceased wedged between the ship and the quay and tried to help him, but could not hold on. The coroner expressed his opinion that there should be some sort of protection between the quay and the ship. This was carried out afterwards as the photograph of the site of the accident below clearly shows.

Bethel Mission ship

Bethel Mission Ship, St Augustine’s Reach

Stephen’s step-sister Phoebe Isabella had drowned in a boating accident at Bath on July 6th 1888 (see here) and just twelve days later, her father George Rogers travelled to Bristol to make his will in the offices of the solicitor William Watts. His estate, which totalled £220 was left to his wife Phoebe and thereafter to his surviving children. However there is a special bequest of £2.10s to his stepson, “Steven Bumstead”.
On the 1891 Census the family are still living in Canon’s Marsh and another son, Albert (actually George Albert, born July 3rd 1888, although he always seems to have been known as Bert) is present. Rosina had left however, having recently married John Roberts. Stephen is a Stationary Engine Driver and no occupations are recorded for Louisa or Frederick.

George Albert Bumstead c 1898

George Albert Bumstead c1898

Next to Bristol Cathedral stood the Church of St Augustine the Less (the Cathedral was St Augustine the Greater) and family tradition records young Albert as a chorister there. This was presumably before 1900 when the family moved back to Bedminster. Kelly’s Bristol Directory for 1900 has Stephen Bumstead at 2 Sheene Road, Bedminster, and from 1902 onwards shows the family at 176 York Road. In between, the 1901 Census has them at 1 Diamond Street (just off West Street). Although Stephen’s occupation remains the same, both Louisa and Frederick are recorded as Machinists (Wood Cutting). They now have a much fuller household; as well as Stephen, Louisa and the two boys, Louisa’s widowed mother, Elizabeth Peters, a niece, Lilian Chapman and three other boarders are recorded. Lilian and the other girl boarder, Rose Kruse work as cigarette packers (no doubt at Wills factory, just a few hundred yards away), whilst one of the male boarders, George Chapman, who worked as a railway stoker on the GWR was born in Bermuda in the West Indies, where his father was stationed in the army.

1 Diamond Street crop

1 Diamond Street, Bedminster

The move to York Street, on the New Cut, facing the suburb of Redcliffe, was to be Stephen’s final one. He died on Christmas Day 1903 aged 59 of gastritis and was buried in a family plot in Arno’s Vale Cemetery. Louisa was to live on until 1923, when she too was buried in the grave. Their eldest son, Frederick was also buried there on his death in 1947.

Arnos Vale tombstone

Bumstead grave marker in Arnos Vale Cemetery

 

The Bumsteads of Ipswich

The surname Bumstead originates in the Essex villages of Steeple Bumpstead and Helions Bumpstead and was rarely found outside Suffolk or London, where it first appears in the thirteenth century.

The furthest we can go back with certainty in our line is the baptism of Stephen Bumstead on 15th September 1751; he was the son of another Stephen and his wife Mary and the ceremony took place at St Clement’s Church, Ipswich.

St Clement Ipswich

St Clement’s Church, Ipswich

Stephen was apprenticed in 1765 to Christopher Skidmore who was a painter/plumber/glazier. The next two generations were to follow in this occupation, although variously describing themselves on documents. The trades were all linked and imply one who works primarily with lead (Latin: plumbum); this would include water supply and sanitation plumbing (not the major part of the job as it is nowadays); glazing, where leaded windows were often the norm as large panes of sheet glass were very expensive; lead work on roofs and guttering, as well as painting, where white paint was lead-based.

SB apprenticed to Skidmore 23 Aug 1765 copy

Christoper Skidmore belonged to a family that had been established in Ipswich since the early seventeenth century and he was a Freeman of the town. This was an important privilege – it gave the right to be self-employed in the town, exemption from tolls, business protection and a share in the borough administration influencing the price and quality of goods. It also gave the right to vote in municipal and parliamentary elections. The latter was especially valuable at election time as bribery was rife in “free” boroughs, where the open ballot ensured electors voted for whom they had committed to.

Before the Municipal Reform Act of 1835, there were four methods by which Freemen could be admitted:

By Patrimony – male claimants had to be at least 21 years of age, born in wedlock and with their father a Freeman
By Servitude – claimants (male or female) had to be indentured to a Freeman for seven years, born in wedlock and at least 21 years of age
By Purchase
By Presentation

In 1772 Stephen (b1751) was admitted as a Freeman by servitude. It seems he took his responsibilities seriously as in 1784 he was elected a Chamberlain of the borough. This position (two Chamberlains were elected each year) involved the collection of income (mostly rents from properties owned by the borough and market stalls) and the payment of outgoings. At the end of the year the Chamberlains had to present a summary of their accounts which were then audited and passed by the senior members of the town administration.

On 10th June 1777, just three months after his father’s death, Stephen had married Elizabeth Naunton at St Margarets Church in Ipswich. Elizabeth was probably the daughter of John and Mary Naunton (one of the witnesses at the wedding was a John Naunton); she had been baptised at St Margarets on 3rd December 1745 and so she was six years older than her husband.

St Margaret Ipswich

St Margarets, Ipswich in the 19th century

The marriage produced two children, Stephen born in March 1778 and Elizabeth, who was born in 1779 but only lived a few weeks. Their mother herself died the following year, her burial at St Clements being recorded in June 1780.

Widowers with small children did not normally stay long unmarried in those days and Stephen wedded Sarah Daniels at St Clements on 4th February 1781. They had a further three children, Sarah (born & died 1782) Charlotte (born 1783) and James (born 1785).
We can assume that the eldest surviving child, Stephen was apprenticed to his father in the early 1790s if not before. He was certainly admitted as a Freeman of Ipswich in 1799 (by patrimony), his occupation given as a painter. In 1801 he married Betsy Wase at St Clements Church – among the witnesses are Stephen’s father and a C. Bumstead – possibly sister Charlotte who was 18 and may have been a bridesmaid. Another witness and possible bridesmaid was a B. Wase, almost certainly Betsy’s elder sister Barbara, who, unlike Betsy was able to sign her name.

Later that year Stephen (b1778) applied to the Lending Cash Charity that had been established as far back as 1566 to help poorer tradesmen with an interest-free loan of £25 for ten years. The person requesting the loan (the Obligor) had to find two sureties to guarantee the repayment – the three individuals were liable for double the amount lent (£50) if the loan was not repaid. Stephen had as his sureties John Gray, draper and John Gostling, whitesmith. One of the conditions of the loan was that the obligor did not leave the town and continued in his trade (here Stephen is described as Plumber and Glazier). He is also described as “Stephen Bumpstead the younger” but signs himself “Stephen Bumstead Junor”

Loan Document Stephen Bumstead 1801

At some time during the next year Stephen (b1778) moved to the Parish of St Matthews on the north west edge of the town, for his three eldest children were baptised there: Stephen (baptised 10th July 1802), Matilda (26th January 1804) and William Wase, named for his maternal grandfather (9th March 1806).

Two more sons were baptised at St Margarets; George in 1808 and John in 1809 but by 1814 Stephen and Betsy had returned to St Clements where their last three children were baptised: Samuel in 1814, Mary Ann in 1817 and finally Robert in 1823. The family were living in Rope Walk at this time; baby Samuel’s death is recorded there in 1816 and an advertisement in the Suffolk Chronicle records Stephen as a tenant of a property.

Rope Walk, Ipswich about 1934

Rope Walk, Ipswich

It is sometimes difficult to identify which Stephen Bumstead is being referred to in the records although “senior” and “junior” are occasionally used. In the Quarter Sessions records for the borough there are often lists of bills authorised to be paid – in 1800 for instance we find:
Stephen Bumstead: for work at the Old Gaol £3.11.10
Stephen Bumstead: for work at the Bridewell £2.17.1
This is almost certainly the Stephen born 1751, who was a well connected figure in the town, rather than his son who would have been only 29, although it is possible that they worked together. The Poll Books for the municipal elections regularly list both Stephens in the early 1800s, sometimes using senior or junior to differentiate them.

The four eldest sons of Stephen (b1778) were all duly admitted as Freemen of the borough on reaching their twenty-first birthday: Stephen in 1823, William Wase in 1826, George in 1828 and John in 1831. At the time of their admissions the address of Stephen, William and John was given as London; Stephen’s occupation was given as painter. Although not listed in the admissions book, we know from elsewhere that William was a baker – the occupations of the other two I have not yet discovered.

The document registering the admission of Stephen (b1802) is shown below. He is described as “Stephen Bumpstead son of Stephen the younger”. There were now three Stephen Bumsteads all Freemen of Ipswich and all practising the trade of plumber/glazier/painter.

Stephen Bumstead Admission as Freeman 1823

 

We are lucky to find them all listed together in the Parliamentary Poll Books for the general election held in June 1826. Although voting on different days (polling continued for four days altogether), all four members of the family eligible to vote were recorded as follows:
Stephen Bumpstead Ipswich Plumber
William Wase Bumpstead London Baker
Stephen Bumpstead London Glazier
Stephen Bumpstead snr Ipswich Painter

The printed copy (below) gives a summary:

1826 Electoral Poll Book Ipswich copy
Ballots were not secret in pre-Reform Act days and we can see that all four voted for Robert Dundas and Charles Mackinnon, who were, in fact, both elected as Members of Parliament for Ipswich (the borough elected two members and there were four candidates in all). Both of the new MPs were Tories and it is perhaps not surprising that the family voted thus as a newspaper advertisement shows the allegiance of one Stephen :

Tory ad 1823
Suffolk  Journal 1823

No record has been found of the death of Sarah Bumstead, the second wife of Stephen senior, but he married for the third time on 7th November 1818 at the age of 67. The wedding took place at St Clements and his bride was Sarah Wright. Stephen senior died in March 1831 at the age of 80 and was buried at St Clements, the last of the family to be so. He had lived in Fore Street and in July of 1832 the house was put up for sale. There are no signs of a will for Stephen, but one must suppose the third Mrs Bumstead inherited the quite grand freehold property – “five rooms on the ground floor, a cellar, three chambers and two attics with two staircases from top to bottom” with entrances from a passage from Fore Street or from the St Clements churchyard at the rear. In 1834 his son was still in the parish at New Street:

I take this to read that Stephen was himself a tenant and sub-let part of the property, rather than being himself a freeholder. New Street has now been swept away, but Fore Street remains much as it was with many seventeenth and eighteenth buildings still standing.

Houses in Fore Street, Ipswich

Fore Street, Ipswich

The map below shows the St Clements area and was published in 1778 – the year of one of our Stephen’s birth. You can see quite clearly the church in the centre and its proximity to the docks (roughly above the words “THE RIVER”). Fore Street sweeps around the church from the north-west to the south-east (shown as St Clements Fore Street). New Street is due east of the church. The main part of the town is to the west and north-west of St Clements. The Bumstead house in Fore Street would have been immediately to the south of the church.

Map of St Clements Parish 1778
Within a few years the family were dispersing: Three sons at least had moved to London, the fifth one Samuel had died in 1816 aged two, so only Matilda and youngest son, Robert remained at home (the youngest daughter, Mary Ann married John Sheppard at St Matthews in 1840). By 1841 they had returned to St Matthews. The family lived in Globe Lane at the time of Stephen’s death, which occurred on the 18th April 1841, just a few weeks before the Census was taken. In the Census return, which is too illegible to be reproduced, Betsy is shown as a Laundress and a widow. With her are Matilda and Robert, both of whom were to die in the following year. I have never been able to trace Betsy’s death.

Stephen (b1802), as we have seen, was in London by 1823. On the 7th April 1828 he married Elizabeth Kennedy, a widow, at St Clement Danes church in the Strand. By 1837 they were living at Vine Place in Hoxton. There was a great deal of building taking place in this area of east London and Stephen may have moved to be close to opportunities for work. The couple do not seem to have had any children and Elizabeth died at Vine Place and was buried at St John Hoxton on 5th March 1837. Stephen was to marry again in 1843 and we will return to his family in a future article.
William Wase Bumstead married Mary Ann Fairburn in London around 1835/6. He continued in his occupation as a baker, appearing on the 1851 Census in Tower Hamlets. His descendants stayed in the London area for several generations., but I have not yet found any certain trace of John Bumstead, his brother.

St Clements Ipswich font
The font in St Clements Church, Ipswich where generations of Bumsteads were baptized.